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Drawing on Air: Input Techniques for Controlled 3D Line Illustration

Journal Article

Drawing on Air: Input Techniques for Controlled 3D Line Illustration. Daniel F. Keefe, Robert C. Zeleznik, David H. Laidlaw. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics (2007) Volume 13, Number 5 pp. 1067–1081

Abstract

We present Drawing on Air, a haptic-aided input technique for drawing controlled 3D curves through space. Drawing on Air addresses a control problem with current 3D modeling approaches based on sweeping movement of the hands through the air. Although artists praise the immediacy and intuitiveness of these systems, a lack of control makes it nearly impossible to create a 3D form beyond quick design sketches or gesture drawings. Drawing on Air introduces two new strategies for more controlled 3D drawing: one-handed drag drawing and two-handed tape drawing. Both approaches have advantages for drawing certain types of curves. We describe a tangent preserving method for transitioning between the two techniques while drawing. Haptic-aided redrawing and line weight adjustment while drawing are also supported in both approaches. In a quantitative user study evaluation by illustrators, the one- and two-handed techniques performed at roughly the same level and both significantly outperformed freehand drawing and freehand drawing augmented with a haptic friction effect. We present the design and results of this experiment, as well as user feedback from artists and 3D models created in a style of line illustration for challenging artistic and scientific subjects.

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