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CavePainting, Drawing on Air, and Next Generation Free-Form 3D Modeling Tools

Current IV/LAB Research

Multi-Touch Input and Above-the-Surface Gestures for Free-Form 3D Modeling

More soon...

Drawing on Air, Keefe et al. 2007

Drawing on Air

Drawing on Air is a free-from 3D modeling system that uses a new haptic-aided input technique for drawing controlled 3D curves through space. Drawing on Air addresses a control problem with prior 3D modeling approaches based on sweeping movement of the hands through the air. While artists praise the immediacy and intuitiveness of these systems, a lack of control makes it nearly impossible to create 3D form beyond quick design sketches or gesture drawings. Drawing on Air introduces two new strategies for more controlled 3D drawing: one-handed drag drawing and two-handed tape drawing. Both approaches have advantages for drawing certain types of curves. Drawing on Air also introduces a tangent preserving method for transitioning between the two techniques while drawing. Haptic-aided redrawing and line weight adjustment while drawing are also supported in both approaches. Drawing on Air has been used for both art practice and scientific sketching applications.

Popular Press

CavePainting, Keefe et al. 2001


CavePainting is an artistic medium that uses a 3D analog of 2D brush strokes to create 3D works of art in an immersive virtual reality Cave environment. Like charcoal lines or paint strokes, these 3-dimensional marks are a fluid, highly flexible visual language that is brought to life by an interface responsive to the artist. The virtual reality interface is composed completely of physical props and gestures.

Creating in CavePainting is a new way of working and thinking. While a painter often steps back from his work or a sculptor steps around his work or even holds it in his hand, a CavePainter stands up and walks through his work, grabs and rotates it in his hand, shrinks or enlarges it on a whim, and finally manipulates color variations and stroke size, shape, and placement to create a visual representation for complex forms. Many of these operations have no counterpart in the physical world, thus they allow interactions and make possible the creation of a form that would otherwise not exist. For example, paint strokes would not be able to float or co-inhabit the same volume in the physical world.

Artists are excited about this new form of art and the full-body experience of creating it. CavePainting inspires playfullness, exploration, and creativity. While creating with the system, artists fill the Cave with their movements, dancing and painting to music or lying down on the floor and painting while looking up at the projection surfaces are common activities.

Journal and Conference Articles

Nailing Down Multi-Touch: Anchored Above the Surface Interaction for 3D Modeling and Navigation

Bret Jackson, David Schroeder, Daniel F. Keefe

Proceedings of Graphics Interface, 2012

Scientific Sketching for Collaborative VR Visualization Design

Daniel F. Keefe, Daniel Acevedo, Jadrian Miles, Fritz Drury, Sharon M. Swartz, David H. Laidlaw

IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 2008

Tech-note: Dynamic Dragging for Input of 3D Trajectories

Daniel F. Keefe, Robert C. Zeleznik, David H. Laidlaw

Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces 2008, 2008

Drawing on Air: Input Techniques for Controlled 3D Line Illustration

Daniel F. Keefe, Robert C. Zeleznik, David H. Laidlaw

IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 2007

Artistic Collaboration in Designing VR Visualizations

Daniel F. Keefe, David B. Karelitz, Eileen L. Vote, David H. Laidlaw

IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 2005

Pop through buttons for virtual environment navigation and interaction

Robert C. Zeleznik, Joseph J. LaViola, Daniel Acevedo, Daniel F. Keefe

Proceedings of Virtual Reality 2002, 2002

Visual Space After Virtual Reality

Steven Schkolne, Daniel F. Keefe

Proceedings of Young VR 2001, 2001

CavePainting: A Fully Immersive 3D Artistic Medium and Interactive Experience

Daniel F. Keefe, Daniel Acevedo Feliz, Tomer Moscovich, David H. Laidlaw, Joseph J. LaViola Jr.

Proceedings of I3D 2001, 2001

Workshop Papers

Immersive VR Touch Workbenches: Applications in Engineering and Art

Dane Coffey, Bret Jackson, Daniel F. Keefe

The 3rd Dimension of CHI (3DCHI) Touching and Designing 3D User Interfaces Workshop at CHI 2012, 2012

Free-Form VR Interactions in Scientific Visualization

Daniel F. Keefe

IEEE Visualization 2008 Workshop on Scientific Workflow with Immersive Interfaces for Visualization, 2008

Case Studies in Building Custom Input Devices for Virtual Environment Interaction

Joseph J. LaViola, Daniel F. Keefe, Robert C. Zeleznik, Daniel Acevedo Feliz

VR 2004 Workshop: Beyond Glove and Wand Based Interaction, 2004


Poster: Analysis of Performance in Precise 3D Curve Input Tasks in Virtual Reality

Daniel F. Keefe, David H. Laidlaw

IEEE Visualization (Best Posters Session), 2007

Poster: Teaching Science in Virtual Reality with a Freehand 3D Illustration

Jadrian Miles, Daniel F. Keefe, Daniel Acevedo, Fritz Drury, Sharon M. Swartz, David H. Laidlaw

IEEE Information Visualization, 2007

Poster: A Haptic Interface for Creating Smooth 3D Curves with Varying Line Weight

Daniel F. Keefe, David H. Laidlaw

SIGGRAPH 2005 (Student Research Award), 2005

Poster: Using CavePainting to Create Scientific Visualizations

David B. Karelitz, Daniel F. Keefe, David H. Laidlaw

IEEE Visualization 2003, 2003